Download and read online U S Soviet cooperation in space in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online U S Soviet cooperation in space in PDF and EPUB Space holds a fascination for all of us. For many, it represents a final physical frontier, a place to explore the very essence of knowledge, to experiment with new technology, and to seek new levels of human adaptation and change. As the major spacefaring nation on our planet, the United States has taken special pride in our achievements in space. Discoveries in space science have already added immensely to our fund of knowledge. U.S. scientists have moved quickly to take advantage of new opportunities for learning, and the future of scientific work in space is virtually unlimited. Given the promise of space, an additional issue comes to the fore. How can the United States proceed in space in relation to the other principal spacefaring nation and superpower, the Soviet Union? What is to be gained or lost by working together in space? With regard to science in particular, can the two countries benefit from joint efforts? Can the two countries cooperate as well as compete? Since the beginning of the space age, the two countries have been examining these questions. This study was requested by Senators Matsunaga, Mathias, and Pell as a means to shed light on the subject at the time of the 10th anniversary of the major U.S.- Soviet cooperative endeavor, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. OTA is pleased to be able to provide this technical memorandum, outlining the principal issues of the debate, the history of cooperation, and the experience of France, another country involved in space cooperation with the U.S.S.R. Additional OTA documents that may be of interest include Civilian Space Stations and the U.S. Future in Space, Salyut: Soviet Steps Toward Human Presence in Space, and International Cooperation and Competition in Civilian Space Activities. OTA studies in the areas of technology transfer are cited in the text.
Download and read online U S Soviet cooperation in space in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online U S Soviet Cooperation in Space in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online U S Russian cooperation in space in PDF and EPUB The recent broad political rapprochement between the United States and the nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) has transformed the environment for cooperation on space projects, and led to cooperative programs in space with Russia and other FSU states that would have been unimaginable just a few years ago. Chief among these are the high-profile human spaceflight cooperative activities involving the Space Shuttle-Space Station Mir dockings and the International Space Station. This report surveys the potential benefits and drawbacks of expanded cooperation with Russia and other nations of the FSU in space activities, and examines the impacts of closer cooperation on U.S. industry and U.S. national security concerns. Such cooperation has begun to yield scientific, technological, political, and economic benefits to the United States. However, the political and economic risks of cooperating with the Russians are higher than with the United States' traditional partners in space. Cooperation in robotic space science and earth remote sensing is proceeding well, within the stringent limits of current Russian (and U.S.) space budgets. Including Russia in the International Space Station program provides technical and political benefits to the space station partners, but placing the Russian contribution in the critical path to completion also poses programmatic and political risks. The report notes that much of the motivation for the expansion of cooperation with Russia lies beyond programmatic considerations.
Download and read online The Superpower Odyssey in PDF and EPUB The Superpower Odyssey: A Russian Perspective on Space Cooperation gives a complete picture of the superpower transition from competition to cooperation in space. This book covers the history of the first satellite launch through the early stages of the International Space Station, with the ApolloSoyuz mission in 1975 and the ShuttleMir missions of the 1990s in between. In 1985 alone, beginning with Mikhail Gorbachevs perestroika, there were nearly 100 joint space projects involving government and private sector parties. The book shows how Soviet/Russian and U.S. relations as well as internal political and economic developments in both countries influenced bilateral space cooperation. The Superpower Odyssey: A Russian Perspective on Space Cooperation effectively explains how competition and cooperation were critical in determining the space policies of today. The Russian perspective of this book makes it a unique contribution to the field of space history.
Download and read online The politics of space in PDF and EPUB This first political history of the U.S. and Soviet/Russian space policies to emerge since the end of the Cold War offers an up-to-date analysis of their development and interaction from the start of the Space Age through the present. The author shows how the two countries’ programs intertwined with other, broader policy interests—interests that coalesced both in a frenzied “space race” and in surprisingly persistent attempts at cooperation.
Download and read online Assess Potential Gains and Drawbacks of Civilian Space Cooperation with the Soviets in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Managing International Rivalry on High Technology Frontiers in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online A Progress Report on United States Soviet Union Cooperative Programs in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online The Politics of Space Security in PDF and EPUB The past five decades have witnessed often fierce international rivalry in space, but also surprising military restraint. Now, with an increasing number of countries capable of harming U.S. space assets, experts and officials have renewed a long-standing debate over the best route to space security. Some argue that space defenses will be needed to protect critical military and civilian satellites. Others argue that space should be a "sanctuary" from deployed weapons and military conflict, particularly given the worsening threat posed by orbital space debris. Moltz puts this debate into historical context by explaining the main trends in military space developments since Sputnik, their underlying causes, and the factors that are likely to influence their future course. This new edition provides analysis of the Obama administration's space policy and the rise of new actors, including China, India, and Iran. His conclusion offers a unique perspective on the mutual risks militaries face in space and the need for all countries to commit to interdependent, environmentally focused space security.
Download and read online East West Cooperation in Outer Space in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Space Politics and Policy in PDF and EPUB Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective provides a comprehensive survey of Space Policy. This book is organized around two themes. Space Policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the space age. Space Policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. The book analyzes Space Policy at several levels including historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes and policy outcomes. It examines the symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and science; provides a review and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge in Space Policy; and identifies Space Policy trends and developments from the beginnings of the space age through the current era of the twenty-first century.
Download and read online Sectors of Mutual Benefit in U S Soviet Relations in PDF and EPUB A distinguished panel of analysts examines particular areas of U.S.-Soviet cooperation: crisis communications , trade, science, agriculture, environment protection, space and medicine. The authors analyze agreements that the United States and the Soviet Union have revolved in their mutual interest, agreements that all too often are overlooked in an atmosphere clouded by hostility and mutual distrust. What, they ask, has been the history of these agreements? Have they succeeded or failed? How might they best be sustained and enlarged? Without minimizing the enormous dangers of ongoing strategic military competition, the contributors attempt to determine which sectors of U.S.-Soviet relations have yielded the most significant mutual benefits. They raise questions about where U.S. policy has gone wrong, where it has been effective, and how safe we are in forecasting the continuation of those cooperative relationships.
Download and read online Approaches to Future Space Cooperation and Competition in a Globalizing World in PDF and EPUB Numerous countries and regions now have very active space programs, and the number is increasing. These maturing capabilities around the world create a plethora of potential partners for cooperative space endeavors, while at the same time heightening competitiveness in the international space arena. This book summarizes a public workshop held in November 2008 for the purpose of reviewing past and present cooperation, coordination, and competition mechanisms for space and Earth science research and space exploration; identifying significant lessons learned; and discussing how those lessons could best be applied in the future, particularly in the areas of cooperation and collaboration. Presentations and initial discussion focused on past and present experiences in international cooperation and competition to identify "lessons learned." Those lessons learned were then used as the starting point for subsequent discussions on the most effective ways for structuring future cooperation or coordination in space and Earth science research and space exploration. The goal of the workshop was not to develop a specific model for future cooperation or coordination, but rather to explore the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches and stimulate further deliberation on this important topic.