The Series 7 Exam

Filename: the-series-7-exam.pdf
ISBN: 1587622106
Release Date: 2002-10
Number of pages: 140
Author: Aspatore Books
Publisher:

Download and read online The Series 7 Exam in PDF and EPUB Ready to learn everything only the real word can teach you, not what some exam book or test prep book regurgitates? Bigwig Briefs Test Prep features real world intelligence, strategies and experience from leading minds in the financial world to prepare your mind for questions only industry veterans could prepare you for. Ever wonder how some individuals just have an easier time passing the Series 7 exam than others, even though they may not be the most "book smart?" It is because they have learned to think like a financial advisor/broker-exactly what the questions are meant to see if you can do. This book teaches you how to "think like a financial advisor/broker" and think in a frame of mind that will help enable you to pass the Series 7 exam. This book also features proven strategies, mindsets and problem solving tactics practiced by leading financial minds from some of the biggest firms in the world that can be altered, expanded upon and customized to give you a distinct advantage when taking the Series 7 exam, and preparing you for your life in the financial world.


PassTrak series 7 General securities representative

Filename: passtrak-series-7-general-securities-representative.pdf
ISBN: 0793169445
Release Date: 2003-08
Number of pages: 906
Author: Dearborn Financial Publishing
Publisher: Dearborn Trade Pub

Download and read online PassTrak series 7 General securities representative in PDF and EPUB


The Best Test Preparation for the College Board Achievement Test in Chemistry

Filename: the-best-test-preparation-for-the-college-board-achievement-test-in-chemistry.pdf
ISBN: 0878916032
Release Date: 1996-01-01
Number of pages: 340
Author:
Publisher: Research & Education Assoc.

Download and read online The Best Test Preparation for the College Board Achievement Test in Chemistry in PDF and EPUB Master the SAT II Chemistry Subject Test and score higher... Our test experts show you the right way to prepare for this important college exam. REA's SAT II Chemistry test prep covers all chemistry topics to appear on the actual exam including in-depth coverage of the laws of chemistry, properties of solids, gases and liquids, chemical reactions, and more. The book features 6 full-length practice SAT II Chemistry exams. Each practice exam question is fully explained to help you better understand the subject material. Use the book's Periodic Table of Elements for speedy look-up of the properties of each element. Follow up your study with REA's proven test-taking strategies, powerhouse drills and study schedule that get you ready for test day. DETAILS - Comprehensive review of every chemistry topic to appear on the SAT II subject test - Flexible study schedule tailored to your needs - Packed with proven test tips, strategies and advice to help you master the test - 6 full-length practice SAT II Chemistry Subject tests. Each test question is answered in complete detail with easy-to-follow, easy-to-grasp explanations. - The book's handy Periodic Table of Elements allows for quick answers on the elements appearing on the exam TABLE OF CONTENTS About Research and Education Association Independent Study Schedule CHAPTER 1 - ABOUT THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY SUBJECT TEST About This Book About The Test How To Use This Book Format of the SAT II: Chemistry Scoring the SAT II: Chemistry Score Conversion Table Studying for the SAT II: Chemistry Test Taking Tips CHAPTER 2 - COURSE REVIEW Gases Gas Laws Gas Mixtures and Other Physical Properties of Gases Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Avogadro's Law (The Mole Concept) Avogadro's Hypothesis: Chemical Compounds and Formulas Mole Concept Molecular Weight and Formula Weight Equivalent Weight Chemical Composition Stoichiometry/Weight and Volume Calculations Balancing Chemical Equations Calculations Based on Chemical Equations Limiting-Reactant Calculations Solids Phase Diagram Phase Equilibrium Properties of Liquids Density Colligative Properties of Solutions Raoult's Law and Vapor Pressure Osmotic Pressure Solution Chemistry Concentration Units Equilibrium The Law of Mass Action Kinetics and Equilibrium Le Chatelier's Principle and Chemical Equilibrium Acid-Base Equilibria Definitions of Acids and Bases Ionization of Water, pH Dissociation of Weak Electrolytes Dissociation of Polyprotic Acids Buffers Hydrolysis Thermodynamics I Bond Energies Some Commonly Used Terms in Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Enthalpy Hess's Law of Heat Summation Standard States Heat of Vaporization and Heat of Fusion Thermodynamics II Entropy The Second Law of Thermodynamics Standard Entropies and Free Energies Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Electrolytic Cells Non-Standard-State Cell Potentials Atomic Theory Atomic Weight Types of Bonds Periodic Trends Electronegativity Quantum Chemistry Basic Electron Charges Components of Atomic Structure The Wave Mechanical Model Subshells and Electron Configuration Double and Triple Bonds Organic Chemistry: Nomenclature and Structure Alkanes Alkenes Dienes Alkynes Alkyl Halides Cyclic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aryl Halides Ethers and Epoxides Alcohols and Glycols Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Esters Amides Arenes Aldehydes and Ketones Amines Phenols and Quinones Structural Isomerism SIX PRACTICE EXAMS Practice Test 1 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 2 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 3 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 4 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 5 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers Practice Test 6 Answer Key Detailed Explanations of Answers THE PERIODIC TABLE EXCERPT About Research & Education Association Research & Education Association (REA) is an organization of educators, scientists, and engineers specializing in various academic fields. Founded in 1959 with the purpose of disseminating the most recently developed scientific information to groups in industry, government, high schools, and universities, REA has since become a successful and highly respected publisher of study aids, test preps, handbooks, and reference works. REA's Test Preparation series includes study guides for all academic levels in almost all disciplines. Research & Education Association publishes test preps for students who have not yet completed high school, as well as high school students preparing to enter college. Students from countries around the world seeking to attend college in the United States will find the assistance they need in REA's publications. For college students seeking advanced degrees, REA publishes test preps for many major graduate school admission examinations in a wide variety of disciplines, including engineering, law, and medicine. Students at every level, in every field, with every ambition can find what they are looking for among REA's publications. While most test preparation books present practice tests that bear little resemblance to the actual exams, REA's series presents tests that accurately depict the official exams in both degree of difficulty and types of questions. REA's practice tests are always based upon the most recently administered exams, and include every type of question that can be expected on the actual exams. REA's publications and educational materials are highly regarded and continually receive an unprecedented amount of praise from professionals, instructors, librarians, parents, and students. Our authors are as diverse as the fields represented in the books we publish. They are well-known in their respective disciplines and serve on the faculties of prestigious high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States and Canada. CHAPTER 1 - ABOUT THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY SUBJECT TEST ABOUT THIS BOOK This book provides you with an accurate and complete representation of the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. Inside you will find a complete course review designed to provide you with the information and strategies needed to do well on the exam, as well as six practice tests based on the actual exam. The practice tests contain every type of question that you can expect to appear on the SAT II: Chemistry test. Following each test you will find an answer key with detailed explanations designed to help you master the test material. ABOUT THE TEST Who Takes the Test and What Is It Used For? Students planning to attend college take the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test for one of two reasons: (1) Because it is an admission requirement of the college or university to which they are applying; OR (2) To demonstrate proficiency in Chemistry. The SAT II: Chemistry exam is designed for students who have taken one year of college preparatory chemistry. Who Administers The Test? The SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test is developed by the College Board and administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS). The test development process involves the assistance of educators throughout the country, and is designed and implemented to ensure that the content and difficulty level of the test are appropriate. When Should the SAT II: Chemistry be Taken? If you are applying to a college that requires Subject Test scores as part of the admissions process, you should take the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test toward the end of your junior year or at the beginning of your senior year. If your scores are being used only for placement purposes, you may be able to take the test in the spring of your senior year. For more information, be sure to contact the colleges to which you are applying. When and Where is the Test Given? The SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test is administered five times a year at many locations throughout the country; mostly high schools. To receive information on upcoming administrations of the exam, consult the publication Taking the SAT II: Subject Tests, which may be obtained from your guidance counselor or by contacting: College Board SAT Program P.O. Box 6200 Princeton, NJ 08541-6200 Phone: (609) 771-7600 Website: http://www.collegeboard.com Is There a Registration Fee? Yes. There is a registration fee to take the SAT II: Chemistry. Consult the publication Taking the SAT II: Subject Tests for information on the fee structure. Financial assistance may be granted in certain situations. To find out if you qualify and to register for assistance, contact your academic advisor. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK What Do I Study First? Remember that the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test is designed to test knowledge that has been acquired throughout your education. Therefore, the best way to prepare for the exam is to refresh yourself by thoroughly studying our review material and taking the sample tests provided in this book. They will familiarize you with the types of questions, directions, and format of the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. To begin your studies, read over the review and the suggestions for test-taking, take one of the practice tests to determine your area(s) of weakness, and then restudy the review material, focusing on your specific problem areas. The course review includes the information you need to know when taking the exam. Be sure to take the remaining practice tests to further test yourself and become familiar with the format of the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. When Should I Start Studying? It is never too early to start studying for the SAT II: Chemistry test. The earlier you begin, the more time you will have to sharpen your skills. Do not procrastinate! Cramming is not an effective way to study, since it does not allow you the time needed to learn the test material. The sooner you learn the format of the exam, the more comfortable you will be when you take the exam. FORMAT OF THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY The SAT II: Chemistry is a one-hour exam consisting of 85 multiple-choice questions. The first part of the exam consists of classification questions. This question type presents a list of statements or questions that you must match up with a group of choices lettered (A) through (E). Each choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all. The exam then shifts to relationship analysis questions which you will answer in a specially numbered section of your answer sheet. You will have to determine if each of two statements is true or false and if the second statement is a correct explanation of the first. The last section is composed strictly of multiple-choice questions with choices lettered (A) through (E). Material Tested The following chart summarizes the distribution of topics covered on the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test. Topic / Percentage / Number of Questions Atomic & Molecular Structure / 25% / 21 questions States of Matter / 15% / 13 questions Reaction Types / 14% / 12 questions Stoichiometry / 12% / 10 questions Equilibrium & Reaction Times / 7% / 6 questions Thermodynamics / 6% / 5 questions Descriptive Chemistry / 13% / 11 questions Laboratory / 8% / 7 questions The questions on the SAT II: Chemistry are also grouped into three larger categories according to how they test your understanding of the subject material. Category / Definition / Approximate Percentage of Test 1) Factual Recall / Demonstrating a knowledge and understanding of important concepts and specific information / 20% 2) Application / Taking a specific principle and applying it to a practical situation / 45% 3) Integration / Inferring information and drawing conclusions from particular relationships / 35% STUDYING FOR THE SAT II: CHEMISTRY It is very important to choose the time and place for studying that works best for you. Some students may set aside a certain number of hours every morning to study, while others may choose to study at night before going to sleep. Other students may study during the day, while waiting on line, or even while eating lunch. Only you can determine when and where your study time will be most effective. Be consistent and use your time wisely. Work out a study routine and stick to it! When you take the practice tests, try to make your testing conditions as much like the actual test as possible. Turn your television and radio off, and sit down at a quiet desk or table free from distraction. Make sure to clock yourself with a timer. As you complete each practice test, score it and thoroughly review the explanations to the questions you answered incorrectly; however, do not review too much at any one time. Concentrate on one problem area at a time by reviewing the questions and explanations, and by studying our review until you are confident you completely understand the material. Keep track of your scores. By doing so, you will be able to gauge your progress and discover general weaknesses in particular sections. You should carefully study the reviews that cover your areas of difficulty, as this will build your skills in those areas. TEST TAKING TIPS Although you may be unfamiliar with standardized tests such as the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test, there are many ways to acquaint yourself with this type of examination and help alleviate your test-taking anxieties. Become comfortable with the format of the exam. When you are practicing to take the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test, simulate the conditions under which you will be taking the actual test. Stay calm and pace yourself. After simulating the test only a couple of times, you will boost your chances of doing well, and you will be able to sit down for the actual exam with much more confidence. Know the directions and format for each section of the test. Familiarizing yourself with the directions and format of the exam will not only save you time, but will also ensure that you are familiar enough with the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test to avoid nervousness (and the mistakes caused by being nervous). Do your scratchwork in the margins of the test booklet. You will not be given scrap paper during the exam, and you may not perform scratchwork on your answer sheet. Space is provided in your test booklet to do any necessary work or draw diagrams. If you are unsure of an answer, guess. However, if you do guess - guess wisely. Use the process of elimination by going through each answer to a question and ruling out as many of the answer choices as possible. By eliminating three answer choices, you give yourself a fifty-fifty chance of answering correctly since there will only be two choices left from which to make your guess. Mark your answers in the appropriate spaces on the answer sheet. Fill in the oval that corresponds to your answer darkly, completely, and neatly. You can change your answer, but remember to completely erase your old answer. Any stray lines or unnecessary marks may cause the machine to score your answer incorrectly. When you have finished working on a section, you may want to go back and check to make sure your answers correspond to the correct questions. Marking one answer in the wrong space will throw off the rest of your test, whether it is graded by machine or by hand. You don't have to answer every question. You are not penalized if you do not answer every question. The only penalty results from answering a question incorrectly. Try to use the guessing strategy, but if you are truly stumped by a question, remember that you do not have to answer it. Work quickly and steadily. You have a limited amount of time to work on each section, so you need to work quickly and steadily. Avoid focusing on one problem for too long. Before the Test Make sure you know where your test center is well in advance of your test day so you do not get lost on the day of the test. On the night before the test, gather together the materials you will need the next day: - Your admission ticket - Two forms of identification (e.g., driver's license, student identification card, or current alien registration card) - Two No. 2 pencils with erasers - Directions to the test center - A watch (if you wish) but not one that makes noise, as it may disturb other test-takers On the day of the test, you should wake up early (after a good night's rest) and have breakfast. Dress comfortably, so that you are not distracted by being too hot or too cold while taking the test. Also, plan to arrive at the test center early. This will allow you to collect your thoughts and relax before the test, and will also spare you the stress of being late. If you arrive after the test begins, you will not be admitted to the test center and you will not receive a refund. During the Test When you arrive at the test center, try to find a seat where you feel most comfortable. Follow all the rules and instructions given by the test supervisor. If you do not, you risk being dismissed from the test and having your scores canceled. Once all the test materials are passed out, the test instructor will give you directions for filling out your answer sheet. Fill this sheet out carefully since this information will appear on your score report. After the Test When you have completed the SAT II: Chemistry Subject Test, you may hand in your test materials and leave. Then, go home and relax! When Will I Receive My Score Report and What Will It Look Like? You should receive your score report about five weeks after you take the test. This report will include your scores, percentile ranks, and interpretive information.


CCNA Voice 640 461 Official Cert Guide

Filename: ccna-voice-640-461-official-cert-guide.pdf
ISBN: 9781587204173
Release Date: 2011-09-08
Number of pages: 498
Author: Jeremy Cioara
Publisher: Cisco Press

Download and read online CCNA Voice 640 461 Official Cert Guide in PDF and EPUB The official, comprehensive assessment, review, and practice guide for Cisco's latest CCNA Voice exam -- direct from Cisco * *Contains 80% new content, reflecting the exam's expansion to cover Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM), CUCM Express, Unity Connection, Unified Presence, and network infrastructure. *Includes realistic exam questions on CD. *Contains extensive, proven features to help students review efficiently and remember the most important details. This is Cisco's official, comprehensive self-study resource for preparing for the new ICOMM exam - the only exam needed to gain CCNA Voice certification, now an essential prerequisite for CCNP Voice certification. Top Cisco instructor Jeremy D. Cioara presents every objective concisely and logically, with extensive teaching features that promote retention and understanding. Readers will find: * *Pre-chapter quizzes to assess knowledge upfront and focus study more efficiently. *Foundation topics sections that explain concepts and configurations, and link theory to actual configuration commands. *Key topics sections calling attention to every figure, table, and list that candidates must know. *Exam Preparation sections. *Exam-realistic questions on CD About 80% of this edition's content is brand-new, reflecting the new exam's massive revision, reorganization, and expansion. In addition to Cisco CallManager Express, this book now covers Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM), CUCM Express, Unity Connection, Unified Presence, and network infrastructure considerations. Specific topics added in this edition include: * *CUCM/CUCM Express administration. *Managing endpoints and end-users with CUCM. *CUCM dial plan management. *CUCM/CUCM Express mobility features. *Voicemail integration with Unity Connection. *Unified Presence support. *Network infrastructure management/troubleshooting. *Unity Connection management/troubleshooting


Autodesk Revit 2017 Architecture Certification Exam Study Guide

Filename: autodesk-revit-2017-architecture-certification-exam-study-guide.pdf
ISBN: 9781630570859
Release Date: 2017
Number of pages: 576
Author: Elise Moss
Publisher: SDC Publications

Download and read online Autodesk Revit 2017 Architecture Certification Exam Study Guide in PDF and EPUB Autodesk Revit 2017 Architecture Certification Exam Study Guide is geared toward users who have been using Autodesk Revit for at least six months and are ready to pursue their official Autodesk Revit certification. This fast paced book will get you ready for the certification exams quickly with fun and easy to follow instructions, covering everything from masses to views to documentation. Autodesk offers two levels of certification exam: the Autodesk Certified User exam and the Autodesk Certified Professional exam. This book covers both of the Autodesk Revit certification exams using step-by-step instructions and is packed with valuable information you’ll want to know before taking either of these exams. This book will get you up to speed quickly on the nature of these exam's questions so you will know exactly what to expect on exam day. This book is the most comprehensive and thorough preparation for these exams available. Included are exercises, practice questions and exam simulations which are intended to simulate knowledge users should have in order to pass the certification exams. Also included with this book are two complete practice exams; one for the certified user exam and the other for the certified professional exam. These practice exams are programs that can be run on your windows computer. Each exam is timed and designed to simulate the type of questions you might encounter during the exams. Each chapter is organized into a few sections. The first part of every chapter gives you an overview of the topics covered in that chapter. Next, is a series of exercises designed to prepare you for the Certified User exam. After that, is a series of exercises designed to prepare you for the Certified Professional exam. Finally, every chapter concludes with two quizzes, modeled around the two exams, to test your knowledge of the information covered in that chapter. The competition for jobs is steep, and employers can afford to be picky. Being a certified Autodesk Revit User or Professional is an excellent way to distinguish yourself amongst other professionals and prove to employers that you possess a high level of knowledge and skills.


Test Taking Strategies Study Skills for the Utterly Confused

Filename: test-taking-strategies-study-skills-for-the-utterly-confused.pdf
ISBN: 0071399232
Release Date: 2002-08-23
Number of pages: 276
Author: Laurie Rozakis
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional

Download and read online Test Taking Strategies Study Skills for the Utterly Confused in PDF and EPUB From pulling all-nighters to memorizing rote facts, today's students have shown that they have no organized, logical, or sequential understanding of how to study or prepare for tests. Test Taking Strategies & Study Skills for the Utterly Confused arms students of all ages with the skills they need to pass their tests with flying colors. The perfect guide for all the major standardized tests, including SAT, GMAT, Series 7, LSAT, MCAT, and more, this skillbuilding resource shows students, career changers, and business professionals how to make the most of their study time, how to deal with study and test panic, and how to take tests with optimal confidence and success.


Library Journal

Filename: library-journal.pdf
ISBN: UOM:39015082964936
Release Date: 2002
Number of pages:
Author:
Publisher:

Download and read online Library Journal in PDF and EPUB Includes, beginning Sept. 15, 1954 (and on the 15th of each month, Sept.-May) a special section: School library journal, ISSN 0000-0035, (called Junior libraries, 1954-May 1961). Also issued separately.


Subject Guide to Books in Print

Filename: subject-guide-to-books-in-print.pdf
ISBN: STANFORD:36105025888517
Release Date: 2003
Number of pages:
Author:
Publisher:

Download and read online Subject Guide to Books in Print in PDF and EPUB


Pharmaceutical Compounding and Dispensing

Filename: pharmaceutical-compounding-and-dispensing.pdf
ISBN: 9780857110558
Release Date: 2012
Number of pages: 216
Author: Christopher A. Langley
Publisher: Pharmaceutical Press

Download and read online Pharmaceutical Compounding and Dispensing in PDF and EPUB A student guide to extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding and dispensing.


American Book Publishing Record

Filename: american-book-publishing-record.pdf
ISBN: UOM:39015066180426
Release Date: 2006
Number of pages:
Author:
Publisher:

Download and read online American Book Publishing Record in PDF and EPUB


FASTtrack Physical Pharmacy

Filename: fasttrack-physical-pharmacy.pdf
ISBN: 9780857110640
Release Date: 2012
Number of pages: 232
Author: David Attwood
Publisher: Pharmaceutical Press

Download and read online FASTtrack Physical Pharmacy in PDF and EPUB A concise guide providing the physicochemical background to the design and use of pharmaceutical dosage forms.This FASTtrack book is derived from the textbook Physicochemical Principles of Pharmacy and is designed to be used alongside it for those revision periods when time is short. It includes key points, tips, self assessment questions/answers and memory maps to aid with revision.For the new edition there will be an additional chapter on pharmaceutical nanotechnology.


Forthcoming Books

Filename: forthcoming-books.pdf
ISBN: UOM:39015058394100
Release Date: 2003-08
Number of pages:
Author: Rose Arny
Publisher:

Download and read online Forthcoming Books in PDF and EPUB


Commercial Building Inspector

Filename: commercial-building-inspector.pdf
ISBN: 9780979219115
Release Date: 2006-01-01
Number of pages: 259
Author: Cliff Burger
Publisher: BGR Technical Publications

Download and read online Commercial Building Inspector in PDF and EPUB Commercial Building Inspector is a complete study guide created to help you prepare for the ICC? Commerical Building Inspector, B-2, Certification Exam. This effective tool will show you a quick and easy way to learn the code while you practice for taking the certification exam. While merely reading and studying the code can help you learn. it would take a long time to master because of the extremely large amount of data, exceptions and variations it contains. It is almost impossible to have all that information flawlessly in your mind. In fact, that is why the tests are open book. The best inspectors rely on the code book, not their recollection of the code. It is extremely important to be right on the safety issues in the code. If you have a basic understanding of terminology and you study using my practice question study technique, you should easily be able pass the exam first time and become an expert on the code at the same time while making the most of your time. The general practice questions, timed practice exams, along with special learning techniques in this book will help you:1. Increase your speed at finding the answers making you an expert on where to find the answers in the code book, this is very important because this is the only way to be correct 100% of the time.2. Learn the answers to many of the questions that will be on the test and thereby be able to answer them from recall memory, saving you precious time. 3. Become an expert at managing that time during the test, through test taking experience.Quickly learn a system of study that does do not waste time and is very effective in learning the material quickly and accurately. Using questions to learn is far superior to just reading. When you read a question your mind in forced to think, after all you now have a problem to solve. In order to purse the answer, your mind is required to interpret what that problem is, then process that information, and finally find a solution through recall, or research. This system of study will teach you how to both recall the answers and research the answers quickly and effectively, in fact, you will find that this technique can be used for anything you want to learn and remember throughout your life.The practice questionsThe first section of practice questions contains hundreds of questions similar to those on the exam. It is designed to help you learn the code and give you the practice need to the find answers quickly. The second section contains are several Timed Practice Tests, which will hone your skills further, only this time with the element of time in play, just like the real exams. When you are finished you should be a master.Now, you can go into that exam room with experience, knowledge and confidence, and pass that exam.Cliff Burger


The Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS

Filename: the-official-cambridge-guide-to-ielts.pdf
ISBN: 3125352029
Release Date: 2014
Number of pages: 400
Author: Pauline Cullen
Publisher:

Download and read online The Official Cambridge Guide to IELTS in PDF and EPUB


Books in Print Supplement

Filename: books-in-print-supplement.pdf
ISBN: STANFORD:36105025888426
Release Date: 2002
Number of pages:
Author:
Publisher:

Download and read online Books in Print Supplement in PDF and EPUB Includes authors, titles, subjects.