Download and read online Militarizing the American Criminal Justice System in PDF and EPUB Controlling threats to national security has long been the mission of the U.S. military, while civilian law enforcement has dealt with domestic problems of crime, illegal drugs, and internal disorder. This groundbreaking collection argues persuasively that the conventional distinctions between these two forces are becoming blurred and considers the far-reaching consequences of the disquieting trend to militarize the nation's criminal justice system. The contributors examine the historical and current interrelationships between the military and police, illuminating such areas as the ideological similarities between waging real wars and fighting the wars on drugs and crime, the reshaping of the military's role after the end of the Cold War, the rapidly growing influence of advanced military technology in civilian society, and the adaptation of military models such as boot camps and SWAT teams in policing and corrections. As the lines between the military industrial complex and the criminal justice enterprise become ever more clouded, this work provides a much-needed evaluation of the thorny issues, dangers, and public policy ramifications raised by the entanglement between militari
Download and read online Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Methods in PDF and EPUB Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Methods truly engages students to learn an essential yet difficult subject. It features real-life examples, accessibility without sacrificing rigor, cutting-edge coverage of the subject, and a consistent demonstration of how research is relevant to both the criminal justice system and our discipline. This text goes beyond the nuts and bolts, and teaches students how to competently critique as well as create research-based knowledge.
Download and read online Our Enemies in Blue in PDF and EPUB Let's begin with the basics: violence is an inherent part of policing. The police represent the most direct means by which the state imposes its will on the citizenry. They are armed, trained, and authorized to use force. Like the possibility of arrest, the threat of violence is implicit in every police encounter. Violence, as well as the law, is what they represent. Using media reports alone, the Cato Institute's last annual study listed nearly seven thousand victims of police "misconduct" in the United States. But such stories of police brutality only scratch the surface of a national epidemic. Every year, tens of thousands are framed, blackmailed, beaten, sexually assaulted, or killed by cops. Hundreds of millions of dollars are spent on civil judgments and settlements annually. Individual lives, families, and communities are destroyed. In this extensively revised and updated edition of his seminal study of policing in the United States, Kristian Williams shows that police brutality isn't an anomaly, but is built into the very meaning of law enforcement in the United States. From antebellum slave patrols to today's unarmed youth being gunned down in the streets, "peace keepers" have always used force to shape behavior, repress dissent, and defend the powerful. Our Enemies in Blue is a well-researched page-turner that both makes historical sense of this legalized social pathology and maps out possible alternatives.
Download and read online Controversial New Religions in PDF and EPUB Over the last several years, the scholarly interest in New Religious Movements has grown exponentially. The general public, however, tends to hear about New Religious Movements only when there has been a tragedy, such as the burning of the Branch Davidians' compound in Waco or the Heaven's Gate suicide. The press then lavishes attention on these groups, writing melodramatic stories that play up the oddness of their beliefs and behaviors. This volume offers a scholarly, dispassionate lookat those groups that have generated the most controversy. The groups covered are: The Family Unification Church People's Temple Branch Davidians ISKCON (Hare Krishnas) Osho Rajneesh Soka Gakkai Aum Shunrikyo Falun Gong Aumism Scientology Theosophy Order of the Solar Temple Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness Heaven's Gate Raelians White Racist Religions Satanism Each essay provides not only an overview of the history and beliefs of each organization or movement, but also analysis that makesan original contribution to the field. This book will be an invaluable resource for all those who seek a view of New Religions that is deeper than what can be found in sensationalistic newspaper stories or on the six o'clock news.
Download and read online Rise of the Warrior Cop in PDF and EPUB The last days of colonialism taught America's revolutionaries that soldiers in the streets bring conflict and tyranny. As a result, our country has generally worked to keep the military out of law enforcement. But according to investigative reporter Radley Balko, over the last several decades, America's cops have increasingly come to resemble ground troops. The consequences have been dire: the home is no longer a place of sanctuary, the Fourth Amendment has been gutted, and police today have been conditioned to see the citizens they serve as an other—an enemy. Today's armored-up policemen are a far cry from the constables of early America. The unrest of the 1960s brought about the invention of the SWAT unit—which in turn led to the debut of military tactics in the ranks of police officers. Nixon's War on Drugs, Reagan's War on Poverty, Clinton's COPS program, the post–9/11 security state under Bush and Obama: by degrees, each of these innovations expanded and empowered police forces, always at the expense of civil liberties. And these are just four among a slew of reckless programs. In Rise of the Warrior Cop, Balko shows how politicians' ill-considered policies and relentless declarations of war against vague enemies like crime, drugs, and terror have blurred the distinction between cop and soldier. His fascinating, frightening narrative shows how over a generation, a creeping battlefield mentality has isolated and alienated American police officers and put them on a collision course with the values of a free society.
Download and read online Seven Shots in PDF and EPUB On July 31, 1997, a six-man Emergency Service team from the NYPD raided a terrorist cell in Brooklyn and narrowly prevented a suicide bombing of the New York subway that would have cost hundreds, possibly thousands of lives. Seven Shots tells the dramatic story of that raid, the painstaking police work involved, and its paradoxical aftermath, which drew the officers into a conflict with other rank-and-file police and publicity-hungry top brass. Jennifer C. Hunt draws on her personal knowledge of the NYPD and a network of police contacts extending from cop to four-star chief, to trace the experience of three officers on the Emergency Service entry team and the two bomb squad detectives who dismantled the live device. She follows their lives for five years, from that near-fatal day in 1997, through their encounters inside the brutal world of departmental politics, and on to 9/11, when they once again put their lives at risk in the fight against terrorism, racing inside the burning towers and sorting through the ash, debris, and body parts. Throughout this fast paced narrative, Hunt maintains a strikingly fine-grained, street-level view, allowing us to understand the cops on their own terms—and often in their own words. The result is a compelling insider’s picture of the human beings who work in two elite units in the NYPD and the moral and physical danger and courage involved. As gripping as an Ed McBain novel—and just as steeped in New York cop culture and personalities—Seven Shots takes readers on an unforgettable journey behind the shield and into the hearts of New York City police. http://www.seven-shots.com
Download and read online Stress in Policing in PDF and EPUB Stress in policing remains a serious concern for individual officers, their families, their organizations and society at large. As an editor of the Psychological and Behavioural Aspects of Risk series, Ronald J. Burke brings together the latest research findings and intervention strategies, shown to be effective, by an international group of experts. The contributors comprise of a group of high profile researchers and writers who are experts in their respective fields. This edited collection addresses such issues as: The increased risk of international terrorism Racial profiling Police Culture Police integrity Police suicide Inadequate police training The work of police officers exposes them to sources of stress that increase several risks in terms of their psychological and physical health, their family relationships, physical injuries, emotional trauma, ambiguity about their roles in society. Shift work, and undercover work add additional burdens to officers and their families. Police work also places risks on the communities in which officers serve in terms of officers being inadequately trained to deal with mentally ill citizens.
Download and read online The Machinery of Criminal Justice in PDF and EPUB The Machinery of Criminal Justice explores the transformation of the criminal justice system and considers how criminal justice could better accommodate lay participation, values, and relationships.
Download and read online Storming Zion in PDF and EPUB While scholars, media, and the public may be aware of a few extraordinary government raids on religious communities, such as the U.S. federal raid on the Branch Davidians in 1993, very few people are aware of the scope of these raids or the frequency with which they occur. Inspired by the Texas State raid on the Fundamentalist Church of Latter-day Saints in 2008, authors Stuart A. Wright and Susan J. Palmer decided to collect data on all the raids of this kind that have taken place in Western-style democracies over the last six decades. They thus established the first archive of raided groups and then used it see if any patterns could be identified. Their findings were shocking; there were far more raids than expected, and the vast majority of them had occurred since 1990, reflecting a nearly exponential increase. What could account for this sudden and dramatic increase in state control of minority religions? In Storming Zion, Wright and Palmer argue that the increased use of these high-risk and extreme types of enforcement corresponds to expanded organization and initiatives by opponents of unconventional religions. Anti-cult organizations provide strategic "frames" that define potential conflicts or problems in a given community as inherently dangerous, and construct narratives that draw on stereotypes of child and sexual abuse, brainwashing, and even mass suicide. The targeted group is made to appear more dangerous than it is, resulting in an overreaction by authorities. Wright and Palmer explore the implications of heightened state repression and control of minority religions in an increasingly multicultural, globalized world. At a time of rapidly shifting demographics within Western societies this book cautions against state control of marginalized groups and offers insight into the reasons why the responses to these groups are often so reactionary.
Download and read online University in Chains in PDF and EPUB President Eisenhower originally included 'academic' in the draft of his landmark, oft-quoted speech on the military-industrial-complex. Giroux tells why Eisenhower saw the academy as part of the famous complex - and how his warning was vitally prescient for 21st-century America. Giroux details the sweeping post-9/11 assault being waged on the academy by militarization, corporatization, and right-wing fundamentalists who increasingly view critical thought itself as a threat to the dominant political order. Giroux argues that the university has become a handmaiden of the Pentagon and corporate interests, it has lost its claim to independence and critical learning and has compromised its role as a democratic public sphere. And yet, in spite of its present embattled status and the inroads made by corporate power, the defense industries, and the right wing extremists, Giroux defends the university as one of the few public spaces left capable of raising important questions and educating students to be critical and engaged agents. He concludes by making a strong case for reclaiming it as a democratic public sphere.
Download and read online The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and War in PDF and EPUB This interdisciplinary Handbook brings together into one coherent volume a range of international authors, who firmly establish the relevance of war within the discipline of criminology. The chapters address emerging and prevailing issues in the criminological study of war, including state crime, corporate crime, victimology, genocide, policing, security and various forms of violence. Taking a critical standpoint including feminist, cultural, and radical approaches amongst others, the Handbook is split into five clear sections: (1) The Criminogenic Contexts of War; (2) Violence and Victimization at War; (3) Violence, War and Security; (4) Perpetrators of Violence and the Aftermath of War; and (5) Cultural and Methodological Developments for a Criminology of War. Edited by two leading experts in the field, this Handbook provides an original point of reference on the contemporary debates and applications of criminology and war and will be a key resource for academics and students across criminology, international relations, critical military studies, military sociology, peace studies and law.
Download and read online Democratic Policing in a Changing World in PDF and EPUB Democratic policing today is a widely used approach to policing not only in Western societies but increasingly around the world. Yet it is rarely defined and it is little understood by the public and even by many of its practitioners. Peter K. Manning draws on political philosophy, sociology and criminal justice to develop a widely applicable fundamental conception of democratic policing. In the process he delineates today's relationship between democracy and policing. Democratic Policing in a Changing World documents the failure of police reform, showing that each new approach - such as crime mapping and 'hot spots' policing - fails to alter any fundamental practice and has in fact increased social inequalities. He offers a new and better approach for scholars, policy makers, police, governments and societies.
Download and read online The Use and Abuse of Police Power in America Historical Milestones and Current Controversies in PDF and EPUB Providing a timely and much-needed investigation of how U.S. law enforcement carries out its public safety and crime fighting mandates, this book is an invaluable resource for students, educators, and concerned citizens. • Provides a single-volume, go-to source for insight into police-citizen relations in the United States, from the 17th century through to today • Documents major turning points and historical events influencing the evolution of police power • Provides both supportive and critical perspectives on contemporary trends in law enforcement activities, attitudes, and practices • Enables a fuller comprehension of law enforcement in an era of significant political and social upheaval, much of which is tied to racial, ethnic, or economic factors
Download and read online Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement in PDF and EPUB This three-volume Encyclopedia of Law Enforcement provides a comprehensive, critical, and descriptive examination of all facets of law enforcement on the state and local, federal and national, and international stages. This work is a unique reference source that provides readers with informed discussions on the practice and theory of policing in an historical and contemporary framework. The volumes treat subjects that are particular to the area of state and local, federal and national, and international policing. Many of the themes and issues of policing cut across disciplinary borders, however, and several entries provide comparative information that places the subject in context.
Download and read online The Encyclopedia of Police Science in PDF and EPUB First published in 1996, this work covers all the major sectors of policing in the United States. Political events such as the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have created new policing needs while affecting public opinion about law enforcement. This third edition of the "Encyclopedia" examines the theoretical and practical aspects of law enforcement, discussing past and present practices.