Download and read online Engineering a Safer World in PDF and EPUB Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineering techniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, have changed very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a new approach to safety -- more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world -- based on modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950s aerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively on real-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, less expensive, and easier to use than current techniques.Arguing that traditional models of causality are inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes, or STAMP), then then shows how the new model can be used to create techniques for system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safety in operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques to real-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first Gulf War; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a public water supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering, offering techniques for "reengineering" any large sociotechnical system to improve safety and manage risk.
Download and read online Engineering a Safer World in PDF and EPUB Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineeringtechniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, havechanged very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a newapproach to safety--more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world--basedon modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950saerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively onreal-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, lessexpensive, and easier to use than current techniques. Arguing that traditional models of causalityare inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic AccidentModel and Processes, or STAMP), then then shows how the new model can be used to create techniquesfor system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safetyin operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques toreal-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first GulfWar; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a publicwater supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering,offering techniques for "reengineering" any large sociotechnical system to improve safetyand manage risk.
Download and read online SafeWare in PDF and EPUB We are building systems today--and using computers to control them--that have the potential for large-scale destruction of life and environment. More than ever, software engineers and system developers, as well as their managers, must understand the issues and develop the skills needed to anticipate and prevent accidents before they occur. Professionals should not require a catastrophe to happen before taking action. Addressing this need in her long-awaited book, Nancy Levenson examines what is currently known about building safe electromagnetic systems and looks at past accidents to see what practical lessons can be applied to new computer-controlled systems.Software Demonstrates the importance of integrating software safety efforts with system safety engineering Describes models of accidents and human error that underlie particular approaches to safety problems Presents the elements of a software program, including management, hazard analysis, requirements analysis, design for safety, design of the human-machine interface, and verification 0201119722B04062001
Download and read online Inventing the Medium in PDF and EPUB Digital artifacts from iPads to databases pervade our lives, and the design decisions that shape them affect how we think, act, communicate, and understand the world. But the pace of change has been so rapid that technical innovation is outstripping design. Interactors are often mystified and frustrated by their enticing but confusing new devices; meanwhile, product design teams struggle to articulate shared and enduring design goals. With Inventing the Medium, Janet Murray provides a unified vocabulary and a common methodology for the design of digital objects and environments. It will be an essential guide for both students and practitioners in this evolving field.Murray explains that innovative interaction designers should think of all objects made with bits -- whether games or Web pages, robots or the latest killer apps -- as belonging to a single new medium: the digital medium. Designers can speed the process of useful and lasting innovation by focusing on the collective cultural task of inventing this new medium. Exploring strategies for maximizing the expressive power of digital artifacts, Murray identifies and examines four representational affordances of digital environments that provide the core palette for designers across applications: computational procedures, user participation, navigable space, and encyclopedic capacity. Each chapter includes a set of Design Explorations -- creative exercises for students and thought experiments for practitioners -- that allow readers to apply the ideas in the chapter to particular design problems. Inventing the Medium also provides more than 200 illustrations of specific design strategies drawn from multiple genres and platforms and a glossary of design concepts.
Download and read online Reliability of Safety Critical Systems in PDF and EPUB Presents the theory and methodology for reliability assessments of safety-critical functions through examples from a wide range of applications Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to reliability assessments of safety-related systems based on electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic (E/E/PE) technology. With a focus on the design and development phases of safety-critical systems, the book presents theory and methods required to document compliance with IEC 61508 and the associated sector-specific standards. Combining theory and practical applications, Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications implements key safety-related strategies and methods to meet quantitative safety integrity requirements. In addition, the book details a variety of reliability analysis methods that are needed during all stages of a safety-critical system, beginning with specification and design and advancing to operations, maintenance, and modification control. The key categories of safety life-cycle phases are featured, including strategies for the allocation of reliability performance requirements; assessment methods in relation to design; and reliability quantification in relation to operation and maintenance. Issues and benefits that arise from complex modern technology developments are featured, as well as: Real-world examples from large industry facilities with major accident potential and products owned by the general public such as cars and tools Plentiful worked examples throughout that provide readers with a deeper understanding of the core concepts and aid in the analysis and solution of common issues when assessing all facets of safety-critical systems Approaches that work on a wide scope of applications and can be applied to the analysis of any safety-critical system A brief appendix of probability theory for reference With an emphasis on how safety-critical functions are introduced into systems and facilities to prevent or mitigate the impact of an accident, this book is an excellent guide for professionals, consultants, and operators of safety-critical systems who carry out practical, risk, and reliability assessments of safety-critical systems. Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications is also a useful textbook for courses in reliability assessment of safety-critical systems and reliability engineering at the graduate-level, as well as for consulting companies offering short courses in reliability assessment of safety-critical systems.
Download and read online Chemical Process Safety in PDF and EPUB Chemical Process Safety: Learning from Case Histories, Fourth Edition gives insight into eliminating specific classes of hazards while also providing real case histories with valuable lessons to be learned. This edition also includes practical sections on mechanical integrity, management of change, and incident investigation programs, along with a list of helpful resources. The information contained in this book will help users stay up-to-date on all the latest OSHA requirements, including the OSHA-required Management of Change, Mechanical Integrity, and Incident Investigation regulations. Learn how to eliminate hazards in the design, operation, and maintenance of chemical process plants and petroleum refineries. World-renowned expert in process safety, Roy Sanders, shows how to reduce risks in plants and refineries, including a summary of case histories from high profile disasters and recommendations for how to avoid repeating the same mistakes. Following the principles outlined in this text will help save lives and reduce loss. Features additional new chapters covering safety culture, maintaining a sense of vulnerability, and additional learning opportunities from recent incidents and near misses Contains updated information from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the National Safety Council, with concise summaries of some of the most important case histories of the twenty-first century Includes significantly expanded information from the US Chemical Safety Board, US OSHA, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Provides a completely updated chapter to guide readers to a wealth of reference material available on the web and elsewhere
Download and read online The ETTO Principle Efficiency Thoroughness Trade Off in PDF and EPUB Accident investigation and risk assessment have for decades focused on the human factor, particularly ‘human error’. This bias towards performance failures leads to a neglect of normal performance. It assumes that failures and successes have different origins so there is little to be gained from studying them together. Erik Hollnagel believes this assumption is false and that safety cannot be attained only by eliminating risks and failures. The alternative is to understand why things go right and to amplify that. The ETTO Principle looks at the common trait of people at work to adjust what they do to match the conditions. It proposes that this efficiency-thoroughness trade-off (ETTO) is normal. While in some cases the adjustments may lead to adverse outcomes, these are due to the same processes that produce successes.
Download and read online Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems in PDF and EPUB This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, MODELS 2014, held in Valencia, Spain, in September/October 2014. The 41 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 126 submissions. The scope of the conference series is broad, encompassing modeling languages, methods, tools, and applications considered from theoretical and practical angles and in academic and industrial settings. The papers report on the use of modeling in a wide range of cloud, mobile, and web computing, model transformation behavioral modeling, MDE: past, present, future, formal semantics, specification, and verification, models at runtime, feature and variability modeling, composition and adaptation, practices and experience, modeling for analysis, pragmatics, model extraction, manipulation and persistence, querying, and reasoning.
Download and read online Software Quality Increasing Value in Software and Systems Development in PDF and EPUB This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th Software Quality Days Conference (SWQD) held in Vienna, Austria, in January 2013. This professional symposium and conference offers a range of comprehensive and valuable opportunities for advanced professional training, new ideas, and networking with a series of keynote speeches, professional lectures, exhibits, and tutorials. The seven scientific full papers accepted for SWQD were each peer-reviewed by three or more reviewers and selected out of 18 high-quality submissions. Further, two keynotes and six short papers on promising research directions were also presented and included in order to spark discussions between researchers and practitioners. The papers are organized into topical sections on risk management; software and systems testing; test processes; model-based development; and process improvement and measurement.
Download and read online Engineering Embedded Systems in PDF and EPUB This is a textbook for graduate and final-year-undergraduate computer-science and electrical-engineering students interested in the hardware and software aspects of embedded and cyberphysical systems design. It is comprehensive and self-contained, covering everything from the basics to case-study implementation. Emphasis is placed on the physical nature of the problem domain and of the devices used. The reader is assumed to be familiar on a theoretical level with mathematical tools like ordinary differential equation and Fourier transforms. In this book these tools will be put to practical use. Engineering Embedded Systems begins by addressing basic material on signals and systems, before introducing to electronics. Treatment of digital electronics accentuating synchronous circuits and including high-speed effects proceeds to micro-controllers, digital signal processors and programmable logic. Peripheral units and decentralized networks are given due weight. The properties of analog circuits and devices like filters and data converters are covered to the extent desirable by a systems architect. The handling of individual elements concludes with power supplies including regulators and converters. The final section of the text is composed of four case studies: • electric-drive control, permanent magnet synchronous motors in particular; • lock-in amplification with measurement circuits for weight and torque, and moisture; • design of a simple continuous wave radar that can be operated to measure speed and distance; and • design of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for process applications. End-of-chapter exercises will assist the student to assimilate the tutorial material and these are supplemented by a downloadable solutions manual for instructors. The “pen-and-paper” problems are further augmented with laboratory activities. In addition to its student market, Engineering Embedded Systems will assist industrial practitioners working in systems architecture and the design of electronic measurement systems to keep up to date with developments in embedded systems through self study.
Download and read online Computer Safety Reliability and Security in PDF and EPUB This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security, SAFECOMP 2015, held in Delft, The Netherlands, in September 2014. The 32 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 104 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on flight systems, automotive embedded systems, automotive software, error detection, medical safety cases, medical systems, architecture and testing, safety cases, security attacks, cyber security and integration, and programming and compiling.
Download and read online Software Engineering in Health Care in PDF and EPUB This book constitutes revised selected papers from the jointly held conferences FHIES 2014, 4th International Symposium on Foundations of Health Information Engineering and Systems, and SEHC 2014, 6th International Workshop on Software Engineering in Health Care. The meeting took place in Washington, DC, USA, in July 2014. The 16 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 23 submissions. They deal with security aspects of health information systems; medical devices in cyberphysical systems; the process of providing healthcare and of monitoring patients; and patient safety and the assurance of medical systems.
Download and read online Random Processes for Engineers in PDF and EPUB An engaging introduction to the critical tools needed to design and evaluate engineering systems operating in uncertain environments.
Download and read online Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation Part I in PDF and EPUB Human Factors and Ergonomics have made a considerable contribution to the research, design, development, operation and analysis of transportation systems which includes road and rail vehicles and their complementary infrastructure, aviation and maritime transportation. This book presents recent advances in the Human Factors aspects of Transportation. These advances include accident analysis, automation of vehicles, comfort, distraction of drivers (understanding of distraction and how to avoid it), environmental concerns, in-vehicle systems design, intelligent transport systems, methodological developments, new systems and technology, observational and case studies, safety, situation awareness, skill development and training, warnings and workload. This book brings together the most recent human factors work in the transportation domain, including empirical research, human performance and other types of modeling, analysis, and development. The issues facing engineers, scientists, and other practitioners of human factors in transportation research are becoming more challenging and more critical. The common theme across these sections is that they deal with the intersection of the human and the system. Moreover, many of the chapter topics cross section boundaries, for instance by focusing on function allocation in NextGen or on the safety benefits of a tower controller tool. This is in keeping with the systemic nature of the problems facing human factors experts in rail and road, aviation and maritime research– it is becoming increasingly important to view problems not as isolated issues that can be extracted from the system environment, but as embedded issues that can only be understood as a part of an overall system.
Download and read online Influencing the Quality Risk and Safety Movement in Healthcare in PDF and EPUB Influencing the Quality, Risk and Safety Movement in Healthcare explores the inner workings of some of the most influential minds in healthcare quality, risk and safety. The book was created in cooperation with the Master of Science in Healthcare Quality graduate program, developed and delivered by Queen’s University, Canada. This is the only standalone interdisciplinary Master of Science graduate degree in Healthcare Quality in North America that focuses on creating tomorrow’s healthcare leaders. Following a one-to-one collaboration between each leader in healthcare with a dedicated learner of the MSc(HQ), readers are presented with a synopsis of the leader’s work followed by an in-depth interview with him or her. Interviews center around the leaders’ contributions to and thoughts on quality, risk and safety in healthcare, dealing with topics such as the development of their body of work, their greatest achievements, what they wish they could change, and future direction of quality, risk and safety, etc. The book provides a unique and highly accessible view into how and why the science of healthcare quality has developed, as well as giving a first-hand account of the founders and key players in the movement. It will offer valuable insights to any undergraduate/graduate class with an interest in healthcare, as well as professionals working within any of the many disciplines that can influence the healthcare system.