Download and read online Engineering a Safer World in PDF and EPUB Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineering techniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, have changed very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a new approach to safety -- more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world -- based on modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950s aerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively on real-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, less expensive, and easier to use than current techniques.Arguing that traditional models of causality are inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes, or STAMP), then then shows how the new model can be used to create techniques for system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safety in operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques to real-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first Gulf War; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a public water supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering, offering techniques for "reengineering" any large sociotechnical system to improve safety and manage risk.
Download and read online Engineering a Safer World in PDF and EPUB Engineering has experienced a technological revolution, but the basic engineeringtechniques applied in safety and reliability engineering, created in a simpler, analog world, havechanged very little over the years. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Leveson proposes a newapproach to safety--more suited to today's complex, sociotechnical, software-intensive world--basedon modern systems thinking and systems theory. Revisiting and updating ideas pioneered by 1950saerospace engineers in their System Safety concept, and testing her new model extensively onreal-world examples, Leveson has created a new approach to safety that is more effective, lessexpensive, and easier to use than current techniques. Arguing that traditional models of causalityare inadequate, Leveson presents a new, extended model of causation (Systems-Theoretic AccidentModel and Processes, or STAMP), then then shows how the new model can be used to create techniquesfor system safety engineering, including accident analysis, hazard analysis, system design, safetyin operations, and management of safety-critical systems. She applies the new techniques toreal-world events including the friendly-fire loss of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter in the first GulfWar; the Vioxx recall; the U.S. Navy SUBSAFE program; and the bacterial contamination of a publicwater supply in a Canadian town. Leveson's approach is relevant even beyond safety engineering,offering techniques for "reengineering" any large sociotechnical system to improve safetyand manage risk.
Download and read online SafeWare in PDF and EPUB We are building systems today--and using computers to control them--that have the potential for large-scale destruction of life and environment. More than ever, software engineers and system developers, as well as their managers, must understand the issues and develop the skills needed to anticipate and prevent accidents before they occur. Professionals should not require a catastrophe to happen before taking action. Addressing this need in her long-awaited book, Nancy Levenson examines what is currently known about building safe electromagnetic systems and looks at past accidents to see what practical lessons can be applied to new computer-controlled systems.Software Demonstrates the importance of integrating software safety efforts with system safety engineering Describes models of accidents and human error that underlie particular approaches to safety problems Presents the elements of a software program, including management, hazard analysis, requirements analysis, design for safety, design of the human-machine interface, and verification 0201119722B04062001
Download and read online System Safety Engineering and Risk Assessment in PDF and EPUB We all know that safety should be an integral part of the systems that we build and operate. The public demands that they are protected from accidents, yet industry and government do not always know how to reach this common goal. This book gives engineers and managers working in companies and governments around the world a pragmatic and reasonable approach to system safety and risk assessment techniques. It explains in easy-to-understand language how to design workable safety management systems and implement tested solutions immediately. The book is intended for working engineers who know that they need to build safe systems, but aren’t sure where to start. To make it easy to get started quickly, it includes numerous real-life engineering examples. The book’s many practical tips and best practices explain not only how to prevent accidents, but also how to build safety into systems at a sensible price. The book also includes numerous case studies from real disasters that describe what went wrong and the lessons learned. See What’s New in the Second Edition: New chapter on developing government safety oversight programs and regulations, including designing and setting up a new safety regulatory body, developing safety regulatory oversight functions and governance, developing safety regulations, and how to avoid common mistakes in government oversight Significantly expanded chapter on safety management systems, with many practical applications from around the world and information about designing and building robust safety management systems, auditing them, gaining internal support, and creating a safety culture New and expanded case studies and "Notes from Nick’s Files" (examples of practical applications from the author’s extensive experience) Increased international focus on world-leading practices from multiple industries with practical examples, common mistakes to avoid, and new thinking about how to build sustainable safety management systems New material on safety culture, developing leading safety performance indicators, safety maturity model, auditing safety management systems, and setting up a safety knowledge management system
Download and read online Systems Software and Services Process Improvement in PDF and EPUB This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 22st EuroSPI conference, held in Ankara, Turkey, in September/October 2015.The 18 revised papers presented together with 9 selected key notes and workshop papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 49 submissions. They are organized in topical sections on SPI themed case studies; SPI approaches in safety-critical domains; SPI in social and organizational issues; software process improvement best practices; models and optimization approaches in SPI; SPI and process assessment; creating environments supporting innovation and improvement; social aspects of SPI: conflicts, games, gamification and other social approaches; risk management and functional safety management.
Download and read online Safety I and Safety II in PDF and EPUB Safety has traditionally been defined as a condition where the number of adverse outcomes was as low as possible (Safety-I). From a Safety-I perspective, the purpose of safety management is to make sure that the number of accidents and incidents is kept as low as possible, or as low as is reasonably practicable. This means that safety management must start from the manifestations of the absence of safety and that - paradoxically - safety is measured by counting the number of cases where it fails rather than by the number of cases where it succeeds. This unavoidably leads to a reactive approach based on responding to what goes wrong or what is identified as a risk - as something that could go wrong. Focusing on what goes right, rather than on what goes wrong, changes the definition of safety from ‘avoiding that something goes wrong’ to ‘ensuring that everything goes right’. More precisely, Safety-II is the ability to succeed under varying conditions, so that the number of intended and acceptable outcomes is as high as possible. From a Safety-II perspective, the purpose of safety management is to ensure that as much as possible goes right, in the sense that everyday work achieves its objectives. This means that safety is managed by what it achieves (successes, things that go right), and that likewise it is measured by counting the number of cases where things go right. In order to do this, safety management cannot only be reactive, it must also be proactive. But it must be proactive with regard to how actions succeed, to everyday acceptable performance, rather than with regard to how they can fail, as traditional risk analysis does. This book analyses and explains the principles behind both approaches and uses this to consider the past and future of safety management practices. The analysis makes use of common examples and cases from domains such as aviation, nuclear power production, process management and health care. The final chapters explain the theoretical and practical consequences of the new perspective on the level of day-to-day operations as well as on the level of strategic management (safety culture). Safety-I and Safety-II is written for all professionals responsible for their organisation's safety, from strategic planning on the executive level to day-to-day operations in the field. It presents the detailed and tested arguments for a transformation from protective to productive safety management.
Download and read online Reliability of Safety Critical Systems in PDF and EPUB Presents the theory and methodology for reliability assessments of safety-critical functions through examples from a wide range of applications Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to reliability assessments of safety-related systems based on electrical, electronic, and programmable electronic (E/E/PE) technology. With a focus on the design and development phases of safety-critical systems, the book presents theory and methods required to document compliance with IEC 61508 and the associated sector-specific standards. Combining theory and practical applications, Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications implements key safety-related strategies and methods to meet quantitative safety integrity requirements. In addition, the book details a variety of reliability analysis methods that are needed during all stages of a safety-critical system, beginning with specification and design and advancing to operations, maintenance, and modification control. The key categories of safety life-cycle phases are featured, including strategies for the allocation of reliability performance requirements; assessment methods in relation to design; and reliability quantification in relation to operation and maintenance. Issues and benefits that arise from complex modern technology developments are featured, as well as: Real-world examples from large industry facilities with major accident potential and products owned by the general public such as cars and tools Plentiful worked examples throughout that provide readers with a deeper understanding of the core concepts and aid in the analysis and solution of common issues when assessing all facets of safety-critical systems Approaches that work on a wide scope of applications and can be applied to the analysis of any safety-critical system A brief appendix of probability theory for reference With an emphasis on how safety-critical functions are introduced into systems and facilities to prevent or mitigate the impact of an accident, this book is an excellent guide for professionals, consultants, and operators of safety-critical systems who carry out practical, risk, and reliability assessments of safety-critical systems. Reliability of Safety-Critical Systems: Theory and Applications is also a useful textbook for courses in reliability assessment of safety-critical systems and reliability engineering at the graduate-level, as well as for consulting companies offering short courses in reliability assessment of safety-critical systems.
Download and read online Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety in PDF and EPUB Explains in detail how to perform the most commonly used hazard analysis techniques with numerous examples of practical applications • Includes new chapters on Concepts of Hazard Recognition, Environmental Hazard Analysis, Process Hazard Analysis, Test Hazard Analysis, and Job Hazard Analysis • Updated text covers introduction, theory, and detailed description of many different hazard analysis techniques and explains in detail how to perform them as well as when and why to use each technique • Describes the components of a hazard and how to recognize them during an analysis • Contains detailed examples that apply the methodology to everyday problems
Download and read online Software Quality Increasing Value in Software and Systems Development in PDF and EPUB This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th Software Quality Days Conference (SWQD) held in Vienna, Austria, in January 2013. This professional symposium and conference offers a range of comprehensive and valuable opportunities for advanced professional training, new ideas, and networking with a series of keynote speeches, professional lectures, exhibits, and tutorials. The seven scientific full papers accepted for SWQD were each peer-reviewed by three or more reviewers and selected out of 18 high-quality submissions. Further, two keynotes and six short papers on promising research directions were also presented and included in order to spark discussions between researchers and practitioners. The papers are organized into topical sections on risk management; software and systems testing; test processes; model-based development; and process improvement and measurement.
Download and read online SAFER Electronic Health Records in PDF and EPUB This important volume provide a one-stop resource on the SAFER Guides along with the guides themselves and information on their use, development, and evaluation. The Safety Assurance Factors for EHR Resilience (SAFER) guides, developed by the editors of this book, identify recommended practices to optimize the safety and safe use of electronic health records (EHRs). These guides are designed to help organizations self-assess the safety and effectiveness of their EHR implementations, identify specific areas of vulnerability, and change their cultures and practices to mitigate risks. This book provides EHR designers, developers, implementers, users, and policymakers with the requisite historical context, clinical informatics knowledge, and real-world, practical guidance to enable them to utilize the SAFER Guides to proactively assess the safety and effectiveness of their electronic health records EHR implementations. The first five chapters are designed to provide readers with the conceptual knowledge required to understand why and how the guides were developed. The next nine chapters focus on the underlying informatics concepts, key research activities, and methods used to develop each of the guides. Each of these chapters concludes with a copy of the guide itself. The final chapter provides a vision for the future and the work required to ensure that future generations of EHRs are designed, developed, implemented, and used to improve the overall safety of the EHR-enabled healthcare system. Taken together, the information provided in this book should help any organization, whether large or small, implement its EHR program and improve the safety and effectiveness of its existing EHR-enabled healthcare systems. This volume will be extremely valuable to small, ambulatory physician practices and larger outpatient settings as well as for hospitals and professors and instructors charged with teaching safe and effective implementation and use of EHRs. It will also be highly useful for health information technology professionals responsible for maintaining a safe and effective EHR and for clinical and administrative staff working in EHR-enabled healthcare systems.
Download and read online Non functional Requirements in Systems Analysis and Design in PDF and EPUB This book will help readers gain a solid understanding of non-functional requirements inherent in systems design endeavors. It contains essential information for those who design, use and maintain complex engineered systems, including experienced designers, teachers of design, system stakeholders and practicing engineers. Coverage approaches non-functional requirements in a novel way by presenting a framework of four systems concerns into which the 27 major non-functional requirements fall: sustainment, design, adaptation and viability. Within this model, the text proceeds to define each non-functional requirement, to specify how each is treated as an element of the system design process and to develop an associated metric for their evaluation. Systems are designed to meet specific functional needs. Because non-functional requirements are not directly related to tasks that satisfy these proposed needs, designers and stakeholders often fail to recognize the importance of such attributes as availability, survivability, and robustness. This book gives readers the tools and knowledge they need to both recognize the importance of these non-functional requirements and incorporate them in the design process.
Download and read online Human Performance on the Flight Deck in PDF and EPUB Taking an integrated, systems approach to human performance issues on the flight deck of the modern airliner, this book describes the inter-relationships between the various application areas of human factors, recognising that the human contribution to the operation of an airliner does not fall into neat pigeonholes. The relationship between areas such as pilot selection, training, flight deck design and safety management is continually emphasised. It also affirms the upside of human factors in aviation and avoids placing undue emphasis on when the human component fails.
Download and read online Evidence Based Health Informatics in PDF and EPUB Health IT is a major field of investment in support of healthcare delivery, but patients and professionals tend to have systems imposed upon them by organizational policy or as a result of even higher policy decision. And, while many health IT systems are efficient and welcomed by their users, and are essential to modern healthcare, this is not the case for all. Unfortunately, some systems cause user frustration and result in inefficiency in use, and a few are known to have inconvenienced patients or even caused harm, including the occasional death. This book seeks to answer the need for better understanding of the importance of robust evidence to support health IT and to optimize investment in it; to give insight into health IT evidence and evaluation as its primary source; and to promote health informatics as an underpinning science demonstrating the same ethical rigour and proof of net benefit as is expected of other applied health technologies. The book is divided into three parts: the context and importance of evidence-based health informatics; methodological considerations of health IT evaluation as the source of evidence; and ensuring the relevance and application of evidence. A number of cross cutting themes emerge in each of these sections. This book seeks to inform the reader on the wide range of knowledge available, and the appropriateness of its use according to the circumstances. It is aimed at a wide readership and will be of interest to health policymakers, clinicians, health informaticians, the academic health informatics community, members of patient and policy organisations, and members of the vendor industry.
Download and read online Systems Thinking for Health Systems Strengthening in PDF and EPUB This report investigates how systems thinking can deepen the conceptual and practical underpinnings of system strengthening initiatives. This Flagship Report from the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research makes the case for systems thinking in an easily accessible form for a broad interdisciplinary audience, including health system stewards, programme implementers, researchers, evaluators and funding partners. It presents: What systems thinking is, and what it means for the health system; A health systems case illustration that demonstrates the "Ten Steps to Systems Thinking" - practical guidance in applying the systems perspective; The challenges and opportunities to applying systems thinking in real-world settings; An agenda for expanding the use of systems thinking for health systems strengthening.
Download and read online Designing for Human Reliability in PDF and EPUB Industry underestimates the extent to which behaviour at work is influenced by the design of the working environment. Designing for Human Reliability argues that greater awareness of the contribution of design to human error can significantly enhance HSE performance and improve return on investment. Illustrated with many examples, Designing for Human Reliability explores why work systems are designed and implemented such that "design-induced human error" becomes more-or-less inevitable. McLeod demonstrates how well understood psychological processes can lead people to make decisions and to take actions that otherwise seem impossible to understand. Designing for Human Reliability sets out thirteen key elements to deliver the levels of human reliability expected to achieve the return on investment sought when decisions are made to invest in projects. And it demonstrates how investigation of the human contribution to incidents can be improved by focusing on what companies expected and intended when they chose to rely on human performance as a barrier, or control, against incidents. Recognise some ‘hard truths’ of human performance and learn about the importance of applying the principles of Human Factors Engineering on capital projects Learn from analysis of real-world incidents how differences between ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ styles of thinking can lead to human error in industrial processes Learn how controls and barrier against major incidents that rely on human performance can be strengthened throughout the design and development of assets and equipment