Download and read online A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America Colombia Ecuador Peru in PDF and EPUB Guia de campo das famílias e gêneros de plantas das florestas da Colômbia, Equador e Peru.
Download and read online A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America Colombia Ecuador Peru with Supplementary Notes on Herbaceous Taxa in PDF and EPUB To understand almost any part of the tropical rain forest's fabulously complex web of life, one must first learn to identify a bewildering array of plants. Alwyn Gentry's landmark book, completed just before his tragic death in 1993, is the only field guide to the nearly 250 families of woody plants in the most species-rich region of South America. As a consummate field researcher, Gentry designed this guide to be not just comprehensive, but also easy to use in rigorous field conditions. Unlike many field guides, which rely for their identifications on flowers and fruits that are only present during certain seasons, Gentry's book focuses on characters such as bark, leaves, and odor that are present year-round. His guide is filled with clear illustrations, step-by-step keys to identification, and a wealth of previously unpublished data. All biologists, wildlife managers, conservationists, and government officials concerned with the tropical rain forests will need and use this field guide. Alwyn Gentry was one of the world's foremost experts on the biology of tropical plants. He was senior curator at the Missouri Botanical Garden, and was a member of Conservation International's interdisciplinary Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) team, which inventories the biodiversity of the most threatened tropical areas. From 1967 to 1993 he collected more than 80,000 plant specimens, many of them new to science.
Download and read online A field guide to the families and genera of woody plants of northwest South America Colombia Ecuador Peru with supplementary notes on herbaceous taxa in PDF and EPUB To understand almost any part of the tropical rain forest's fabulously complex web of life, one must first learn to identify a bewildering array of plants. Alwyn Gentry's landmark book, completed just before his tragic death in 1993, is the only field guide to the nearly 250 families of woody plants in the most species-rich region of South America. As a consummate field researcher, Gentry designed this guide to be not just comprehensive, but also easy to use in rigorous field conditions. Unlike many field guides, which rely for their identifications on flowers and fruits that are only present during certain seasons, Gentry's book focuses on characters such as bark, leaves, and odor that are present year-round. His guide is filled with clear illustrations, step-by-step keys to identification, and a wealth of previously unpublished data. All biologists, wildlife managers, conservationists, and government officials concerned with the tropical rain forests will need and use this field guide. Alwyn Gentry was one of the world's foremost experts on the biology of tropical plants. He was senior curator at the Missouri Botanical Garden, and was a member of Conservation International's interdisciplinary Rapid Assessment Program (RAP) team, which inventories the biodiversity of the most threatened tropical areas. From 1967 to 1993 he collected more than 80,000 plant specimens, many of them new to science.
Download and read online Guide to Standard Floras of the World in PDF and EPUB This 2001 book provides a selective annotated bibliography of the principal floras and related works of inventory for vascular plants. The second edition was completely updated and expanded to take into account the substantial literature of the late twentieth century, and features a more fully developed review of the history of floristic documentation. The works covered are principally specialist publications such as floras, checklists, distribution atlases, systematic iconographies and enumerations or catalogues, although a relatively few more popularly oriented books are also included. The Guide is organised in ten geographical divisions, with these successively divided into regions and units, each of which is prefaced with a historical review of floristic studies. In addition to the bibliography, the book includes general chapters on botanical bibliography, the history of floras, and general principles and current trends, plus an appendix on bibliographic searching, a lexicon of serial abbreviations, and author and geographical indexes.
Download and read online Dictionary of Trees Volume 2 South America in PDF and EPUB Dictionary of South American Trees provides a single-source reference for botanists, biologists, ecologists, and climatologists on the many native trees in South America. The index lets readers find a tree in four languages, by its common name, or abbreviation, followed by taxonomy that includes common uses for each part of the tree. Using this information, scientists and students can identify and classify plants, their growth structure and environment, the uses of their products, and alternative options with similar characteristics. Complete coverage of all native South American trees—the only single-source reference for botanists, biologists, ecologists and climatologists working in this diverse and changing region Includes taxonomy at genera, species, sub-species, and varietal levels, providing information from the most basic level up and allowing readers to identify their subjects using numerous criteria Indicates Latin, English, French, and Spanish names as well as common names and abbreviations, facilitating accurate and efficient identification Provides growth information, climatology, ecology and uses for the tree to provide insight into each tree as well as for comparative purposes when seeking similar tree-based resources
Download and read online The Amber Forest in PDF and EPUB The Poinars are world leaders in the study of amber fossils and have spent years examining the uniquely rich supply that has survived from the ancient forests of the Dominican Republic. They draw on their research here to reconstruct in words, drawings, and spectacular color photographs the ecosystem that existed on the island of Hispaniola between fifteen and forty-five million years ago. The Poinars present richly detailed drawings of how the forests once appeared. They discuss how and when life colonized Hispaniola and what caused some forms to become extinct. Along the way, they describe how amber is formed, how and where it has been preserved, and how it is mined, sold, and occasionally forged for profit today.
Download and read online Monitoring Biodiversity in PDF and EPUB The book compiles case studies regarding the biodiversity research and monitoring program of Andean species and habitats carefully chosen as indicators to assess the short- and long-term effects of a linear disturbance: the PERU LNG pipeline. Set in a scientifically unexplored region of the Andes, Monitoring Biodiversity clearly articulates the Smithsonian-led conceptual framework for the implementation in the field by scientists. It addresses scientific and conservation questions addressed by the research protocols, the experimental design, and data gathering. Moreover, the book covers a gap on how to integrate biodiversity research, monitoring, and conservation into sustainable development projects of national and international interest. The text is presented in both English and Spanish.
Download and read online Diversit t und kologie der vaskul ren Epiphyten eines Berg und eines Tieflandregenwaldes in Venezuela in PDF and EPUB Das Buch pr sentiert auf 362 Text- und 27 Anhangseiten eine der umfangreichsten Analysen der kologie und Biodiversit t von Aufsitzerpflanzen (Epiphyten) in tropischen Regenw ldern. Angesichts der fortschreitenden und irreversiblen Vernichtung dieses Lebensraumes, geh rt seine Erforschung zu den dringendsten Aufgaben der Biologie. Nach neusten Sch tzungen beherbergen die Baumkronen der Regenw lder die h chste Artenvielfalt der Erde. Welche Faktoren lassen gerade dort so viele Arten koexistieren? Zur L sung dieses Schl sselproblems will dieses Buch beitragen, indem es sich vergleichend mit den epiphytischen Gef pflanzen eines andinen Berg- und eines amazonischen Tieflandregenwaldes (Surumoni Kran Projekt) in Venezuela besch ftigt. Unter Anwendung von Klettertechniken und mit Hilfe eines auf Schienen beweglichen Baukrans konnten Daten zu mehr als 6000 Pflanzenindividuen aufgenommen werden. Dar ber hinaus wurden detaillierte mikroklimatische Messungen, Substratanalysen und Untersuchungen zur Photosynthese vorgenommen. Dieses Buch h lt umfassende Informationen zur Biodiversit t, Floristik, Morphologie, Reproduktionsbiologie, Dynamik und Physiologie von Epiphyten, aber auch zur Wald- und Habitatstruktur sowie zum Mikroklima bereit. Es beinhaltet zudem eine englische und spanische Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse.
Download and read online Tropical Forests of the Guiana Shield in PDF and EPUB The Guiana Shield is an ancient geological formation located in the northern part of South America, covering an area of one million square kilometres. Despite its hostile environment, it is home to many unusual and highly specialized plants and animals, which constitute a rich area of biodiversity. Chapters in this book include hydrology, nutrient cycling, forest phenology, insect-plant interactions, forest microclimate, plant distributions, forest dynamics and conservation and management of flora and fauna. It provides a comprehensive and detailed review of the ecology, biology and natural history of the forests of the area.
Download and read online Another Boom for Amazonia in PDF and EPUB This study examines the socioeconomic and environmental implications of the new camu camu industry in Peru. Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) is a small tree native to wetlands of the Amazon basin. It is especially abundant in Peruvian Amazonia. The high vitamin-C content of the fruit has generated interest in exporting camu camu products from Amazonia to more-developed countries. The government of Peru has been actively promoting this new extractive industry, as well as the planting of camu camu in rural areas. Non-governmental development organizations and private industry are now actively involved with camu camu projects and enterprises. In Peru, enthusiasm for this native species is high, because camu camu is expected to provide a much-needed and sustainable economic boost for the region. However, many questions about the environmental implications and socioeconomic impacts of the camu camu export industry need to be answered in order to understand its ecological and economic viability, and its effects on business and in rural communities. Winner of 2010 "Dissertation Excellence Award" Findings indicate that camu camu has provided significantly more income to rural residents than is provided by the traditional boom and bust economies of Amazonia. Households who adopted camu camu as a new crop in their floodplain agroforestry systems farmed significantly more floodplain land than non-adopters, and were especially adept at experimenting with new innovations. Lack of agricultural credit is a major constraint to adopting camu camu as a new crop in Peru. Geographic isolation and the location of processing facilities in relation to fruit harvests present major obstacles to the economic viability of the new industry. Camu camu was found to be cultivated with a higher diversity of annual crops than is typical in floodplain fields of the region. Extraction of camu camu fruits from the wild does not appear to have a negative environmental impact, at least in the initial years of the industry. This non-timber forest product in the process of domestication can support a viable industry in the Peruvian Amazon, if agricultural extension methods and marketing channels are improved.
Download and read online Field and Laboratory Methods in Primatology in PDF and EPUB Building on the success of the first edition and bringing together contributions from a range of experts in the field, the second edition of this guide to research on wild primates covers the latest advances in the field, including new information on field experiments and measuring behaviour. It provides essential information and advice on the technical and practical aspects of both field and laboratory methods, covering topics such as ethnoprimatology; remote sensing; GPS and radio-tracking; trapping and handling; dietary ecology; and non-invasive genetics and endocrinology. This integrated approach opens up new opportunities to study the behavioural ecology of some of the most endangered primates and to collect information on previously studied populations. Chapters include methodological techniques; instructions on collecting, processing and preserving samples/data for later analysis; ethical considerations; comparative costs; and further reading, making this an invaluable tool for postgraduate students and researchers in primatology, behavioural ecology and zoology.
Download and read online Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change in PDF and EPUB This updated and expanded second edition of a much lauded work provides a current overview of the impacts of climate change on tropical forests. The authors also investigate past, present and future climatic influences on the ecosystems with the highest biodiversity on the planet. Tropical Rainforest Responses to Climatic Change, Second Edition, looks at how tropical rain forest ecology is altered by climate change, rather than simply seeing how plant communities were altered. Shifting the emphasis on to ecological processes, e.g. how diversity is structured by climate and the subsequent impact on tropical forest ecology, provides the reader with a more comprehensive coverage. A major theme of the book is the interaction between humans, climate and forest ecology. The authors, all foremost experts in their fields, explore the long term occupation of tropical systems, the influence of fire and the future climatic effects of deforestation, together with anthropogenic emissions. Incorporating modelling of past and future systems paves the way for a discussion of conservation from a climatic perspective, rather than the usual plea to stop logging. This second edition provides an updated text in this rapidly evolving field. The existing chapters are revised and updated and two entirely new chapters deal with Central America and the effect of fire on wet forest systems. In the first new chapter, the paleoclimate and ecological record from Central America (Lozano, Correa, Bush) is discussed, while the other deals with the impact of fire on tropical ecosystems. It is hoped that Jonathon Overpeck, who has been centrally involved in the 2007 and 2010 IPCC reports, will provide a Foreword to the book.
Download and read online Tapping the Green Market in PDF and EPUB This special issue of the journal "Public Archaeology" explores indigenous involvement in archaeology and the wide range of areas where archaeological activities have implications for indigenous concerns. Representing one of the most dynamic aspects of pu
Download and read online Forest Structure Function and Dynamics in Western Amazonia in PDF and EPUB The Amazon Basin contains the largest and most diverse tropical rainforest in the world. Besides the Andes and the Atlantic Ocean, the rainforest is bounded to the north by the Guiana crystalline shield and to the south by the Brazilian crystalline shield, marked at their edges by cataracts in the rivers and often dominated by grasslands. This book is motivated not just by the Amazon's scientific interest but also by its role in many ecosystem functions critical to life on Earth. These ecosystems are characterized both by their complexity and their interactive, higher-order linkages among both abiotic and biotic components. Within Amazonia, the Western Amazon (west of 65° latitude) is the most pristine and, perhaps, the most complex within the Amazon Basin. This Western Amazon may be broadly divided into non-flooded forests (e.g. terra firme, white sand, palm) and forests flooded with white water (generally referred to as várzea) and with black water (generally referred to as igapó). Here, for the first time, is a book devoted entirely to Western Amazonia, containing chapters by scientists at the forefront of their own areas of expertise. It should be a valuable resource for all future researchers and scholars who venture into Western Amazonia, as it continues to be one of the most beautiful, mysterious, remote and important ecosystems on Earth.
Download and read online Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology in PDF and EPUB This collection of studies by anthropologists, botanists, ecologists, and biologists is an important contribution to the emerging field of historical ecology. The book combines cutting-edge research with new perspectives to emphasize the close relationship between humans and their natural environment. Contributors examine how alterations in the natural world mirror human cultures, societies, and languages. Treating the landscape like a text, these researchers decipher patterns and meaning in the Ecuadorian Andes, Amazonia, the desert coast of Peru, and other regions in the neotropics. They show how local peoples have changed the landscape over time to fit their needs by managing and modifying species diversity, enhancing landscape heterogeneity, and controlling ecological disturbance. In turn, the environment itself becomes a form of architecture rich with historical and archaeological significance. Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology explores thousands of years of ecological history while also addressing important contemporary issues, such as biodiversity and genetic variation and change. Engagingly written and expertly researched, this book introduces and exemplifies a unique method for better understanding the link between humans and the biosphere.